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newdevs:git:commands

New Developers Working Group

Git for Windows

Useful Commands

Git Commands

  • git add myfile.txt –> stage a specific file
  • git add -A –> stage all modified files in the current directory and subdirectories
  • git add . –> (Note the period) stage all modified files in the current directory but not subdirectories
  • git branch –> list existing local branches
  • git branch mynewbranch –> create a new branch
  • git branch -m oldbranchname newbranchname –> change name of branch
  • git branch -D branchname –> delete a local branch (cannot delete a branch you currently have checked out, so switch to different branch first)
  • git checkout mybranch –> check out an existing branch
  • git checkout -b mynewbranch –> create a new branch and check it out at the same time
  • git checkout master –> switch to master branch
  • git checkout – docname.tt2 –> resets a file you've changed back to its original state (like an undo / revert changes command)
  • git cherry-pick <hash> –> apply a specific commit to your local branch
  • git cherry-pick -s <hash> –> apply a specific commit to your local branch with your signoff
  • git cherry-pick -s <first hash>^..<last hash> –> apply a range of commits with your signoff to your local branch
  • git clone git://git.evergreen-ils.org/Evergreen.git –> clones a remote repository
  • git commit –> invoke the default text editor to add a commit message
  • git commit -m "my commit message" –> add brief commit message instead of opening the text editor to add a commit message
  • git commit --amend –> overwrite your last commit message
  • git commit --amend --signoff –> view and amend your sign-off branch
  • git commit --amend --signoff <hash> –> view and amend your signoff for a specific commit on your sign-off branch
  • git commit -a –> combine the git add and git commit steps into a single step (does not include newly created files)
  • git config --global -l –> list all global configuration values
  • git config --global keyname "value" –> create a global value
  • git fetch --all –> refresh your local cache from the remote branches (does not download new branches); equivalent to git remote update
  • git fetch working –> fetches all new branches in the working directory
  • git help –> access the built-in Git help documentation
  • git log --oneline –> list previous commits with their unique ids
  • git pull –> imports all updates from your default remote repo to your default local repo (usually, this is equivalent to 'git pull origin master'); pull is equivalent to doing a fetch followed by a merge
  • git pull origin master –> import all updates from remote origin repo to local master repo
  • git pull --rebase origin master –> rebases (rather than merges) new remote changes to your local repository
  • git push working mybranchname –> push changes to the remote working directory
  • git push working --delete mybranchname –> delete a remote branch
  • git remote -v –> display remote directories
  • git remote update –>
  • git reset HEAD myfile.txt –> unstage a file that has already been staged
  • git reset --hard –> reset a current branch to its original state
  • git reset --hard HEAD^ –> remove last commit
  • git rm badfile.txt –> delete a file (if the file is being tracked, be sure to add a commit message indicating the file has been deleted)
  • git show <hash> –> display the commit text and differences of the specified commmit
  • git show --stat –> see what your commit will look like before you push it
  • git status –> display status of current branch
  • git version –> displays the installed version of Git

Rebase

If your patch is behind current master, you'll need to rebase it.

  1. Open the git branch
  2. Type: git rebase origin/master –> rebases the current branch to master
  3. If there are merge conflict errors, type: git status
  4. Open the file with the problem in your preferred text editor (notepad++, vim, nano, etc.)
  5. Look for merge conflict markers in the file (>>>) and correct the problems
  6. Type: git add (problem file name)
  7. Repeat steps 4-6 for each additional problem file
  8. Type: git rebase --continue

Squash Commits

If you are in your local working branch and you've pushed up two commits to the remote git repository, you can combine them:

  1. Verify that you are in your local branch.
  2. Type: git rebase -i origin/master
  3. Your text editor will open and should show both of the commits, for example:
    • pick 014e59c579 LP#1839359 Select element on login not accessible
    • pick 9de92lsi9a LP#1839359 Select element on login not accessible
  4. Change the word "pick" in the second line to "fixup" then save and close the file
    • squash –> merges commits, then allows amendment of commit message
    • fixup –> merges commits like squash does, but discards previous commit message
  5. Push the commit again, and force it to overwrite the previous commits:
    • git push –force working lp1839359_login_select:user/jdoe/lp1839359_login_select

Common Bash Commands

  • cd –> move back to the home folder
  • cd foldername –> move from the current folder to a child folder
  • cd .. –> move up in the folder hierarchy one level
  • clear –> clears your command window giving you a fresh screen to work with (also, Ctrl-l)
  • cp myfile.txt myfile.bak –> copies file with new name
  • diff myfile.txt otherfile.txt –> shows differences between files
  • echo $ (tab tab) –> returns list of all variables
  • echo $s (tab) –> returns list of all variables that begin with 's'
  • echo (variable name) –> returns value of variable
  • ls –> list visible folders and files in the current folder
  • ls -a –> lists all of the files and folders in the current folder, including hidden files
  • ls -l –> lists all of the folders and files in the current folder with additional detail such as last modified timestamp
  • man (name of command) –> opens manual for that command
  • mkdir newfoldername –> create a new folder
  • mv myfile.txt myfolder –> moves file to folder
  • notepad++ newdocname.txt –> create a new file and open it in notepad++
  • notepad++ docname.txt –> edit an existing file in notepad++
  • pwd –> see what folder you are currently in
  • rmdir (myfoldername) –> deletes folder

Vim Text Editor

The vim text editor is built into the bash console (similar to notepad in Windows).

  • vim –> opens vim text editor in command mode
  • vim (filename) –> opens file in vim text editor

Vim opens in command mode, which allows a variety of functions, but does not allow direct editing.

  • i –> puts you into edit mode
  • esc –> puts you back into command mode from edit mode
  • :q –> takes you out of vim
  • :w –> saves your work
  • :wq –> saves & closes
newdevs/git/commands.txt · Last modified: 2020/10/20 15:59 by tmccanna

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